From a tech writer’s POV, boilerplate is any text that can be reused (sometimes called re-purposed) in a number of different documents without much change from the original. It’s copy a client often supplies that includes information about an organization’s history, facilities, or capabilities. Since these things don’t change, or change very little, there’s no point reinventing the information every time it’s needed. All the writer has to do is update and refresh the boilerplate and put it in where it’s needed.

From a programmer’s POV, boilerplate is sections of code that have to be included in multiple places in a program with little or no change. It’s also used to refer to languages that are verbose; when a programmer has to write a lot of code to do a small job.

From a legal POV, boilerplate is a standard provision in a contract. It’s the reason that when you buy a house, the contract is twenty pages long, and you have to sign here, here, here, initial here, and sign here.

For the word nuts (like me) here’s a little history. The term goes back about a hundred years when things ran on steam power. Because of the high pressure inside a steam boiler, the steel had to be tough and thick. Anything big and strong was called boilerplate. About the same time, when printing was done with steel plates that could be used over and over, text that was going to be widely reproduced was called boilerplate. Newspapers, especially, used boilerplate so papers could be printed all over the country by just shipping the printing plates to each location.

Foundry technology is emerging as the most profitable and dynamic industry. There are several foundry networks that are providing wide scope of engineering and construction integration. Most of these networks have huge line of metal foundry equipments. Additionally these networks also provide foundry consultation, foundry contracts, operational assistance, and installation services. These networks provide foundry jobs to huge number of foundry professionals. They might have their team of highly skilled and talented foundry engineers who may have years of experience in the industry. With their familiarity with all the aspects of casting that may include iron -, brass -and bronze foundry, these networks may augment their domestic resources with wide-ranging consultancy services with engineering affiliates. Many of these networks may not manufacture equipment.

These networks may provide professional and extensive services that are unbiased. Their main aim is to work keeping in mind their client’s best interest, offering them the best possible solutions at the most reasonable price. They have vision to be the best partner for their client to manufacture high quality castings economically and to act as specialized engineering equipment provider and build long term relationships. They have huge line of foundry expertise that may range from engineering, foundry construction, with extensive metal casting units to all audit services. These networks have the ability to integrate various foundry equipment, and other construction services which makes them the best resource for all foundry requirements.

In addition, these online foundry networks provide wide range of services in the metal casting industry. They might offer individuals to take several courses on the subjects that are related to marketing development, conceptual analysis, facility planning, feasibility studies, project management and control, engineering design. Moreover, they also have facility of providing detailed knowledge on foundry equipment installation, commissioning services, general contracting, robotic research study, computer simulation, electrical equipment integration. They also provide training programs and operational assistance to large number of foundry auditors, casting finishing, fettling staffs and process evaluators. They also provide huge employment opportunities for many people that are valuable resource for maintaining competitive benefit.

Most of these foundry networks have their highly arranged and assembled unit which consists of a complementary blend of seasoned and talented professionals. These highly skilled foundry professionals come from diverse academic backgrounds and they have noteworthy experience in technology. They have wide range of expertise which may range from foundry engineering, plant management to maintenance and other technical areas. If there are individuals who are interested to learn and understand more about technology, foundry equipment and foundry supplies and get to know the job prospects in foundry industry, they can submit their resume along with their academic qualifications to any of the online networks of their choice.

Information Technology is associated with developing, studying and designing the information related to computers. These days, the IT sector is growing very fast, and this field has good opportunities in Education and Business Industries. In business the up-to-date changes in the global market can be easily identified with the development of IT sector. The key factor of using information technology is the hardware devices and software applications. In solving complicated mathematical problems this sector plays an important role.

The role of IT service in the education field is well-known. The quick access provided by this sector helps the teachers and the students in studying the course material without difficulty. The online libraries and dictionaries helped the students to study the subject easily and to increase their grasping power. The addition of information technology in schools, colleges and universities helped the students to understand the basics of each subject well. Nowadays, most of the educational centers started with the online grading system, which even helped the parents to monitor their children’s performance.

The importance of IT service in the management field is relatively significant. It helped the managers in adopting the new technologies and to foresee the possible influence of this technology. The managers can be benefited with the automatically stored the secret information and the effectively arranged computer packages. It gives the appropriate information in front of their computer screen with just a click on the mouse. Even if, one has to handle these software programs in an efficient way, they need to undergo some effective training in information technology.

Video Splitter, Distribution Amplifier, or Booster Amplifier

A lot of speculation has been going on between the difference in a video splitter, a distribution amplifier, and a booster amplifier. First, we’ll start off with distribution amplifiers. This term has been used to describe video devices that split older video signals like composite, component, and s-video video formats. The term amplifier is used because many of the units have the capability of amplifying video signals to a higher frequency, allowing for a better resolution output quality. Distribution amplifiers are also available in a multi-format solution, providing video splitter/amplifying for several different devices. Component/composite video can be connected in RCA and BNC formats. Distribution amplifiers are available in 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 16 port models, allowing user to distribute component, composite, and s-video signals to up to 16 televisions or other outputs.

Booster amplifiers are often compared to video extenders. They take a video signal much like the distribution amplifiers does (composite, component, s-video), and amplify it over a long distance. Booster amplifiers have gain adjustment features that allow users to control to output frequency of connected video devices. With that feature, extension is made simple without signal degradation. A typical booster amplifier can send a video signal up to 1000 feet away from the source device. These types of devices are are highly useful, however the video formats that they support are becoming less frequently used with the development of high definition media formats. CATx video distribution systems are taking over the market and reducing the need for bulky component, composite, and S-video cables which are often a hassle to set up and maintain.

Video splitters, on the other hand, are for PC and high quality television video formats like VGA, DVI, and HDMI.

VGA Splitters take VGA, UXGA, SVGA, and XGA video signals from computers and servers and split them to multiple outputs, theyĆ­re available in 2, 4, 8, and 16 port formats.

Also available are DVI Splitters, which split analog and digital Digital Visual Interface video signals from different devices. DVI splitters are only available in 2, 4, and 8 port models.

The most recent addition to the video splitting technology is the HDMI Video Splitter, which distributes HDMI (High Definition MultiMedia Interface) signals to multiple output displays. These splitters are useful for gaming consoles, computers, camcorders, DVD players, Blu-Ray players, and even projectors. With high definition taking over video technology, these splitters are becoming more and more common in digital signage solutions.

What is a copier technician?

A copier technician is a technician that repairs the copier. That sounds easy enough. A technician that repairs the copier. This sounds like a very simple trite little saying but it contains so much. Lets unpack or truly define the term copier technician. Wikipedia has an interesting definition. A technician is a worker in a field of technology who is proficient in the relevant skills and techniques, with a relatively practical understanding of the theoretical principles. Experienced technicians in a specific tool domain typically have intermediate understanding of theory and expert proficiency in technique. As such, technicians are generally much better versed in technique compared to average layman and even general professionals in that field of technology.”

Copier Technicians are also often referred to as field engineers. Here is a good working definition of that term. A field engineer is a professional who works at job sites other than the main company office or headquarters. This person often services clients at their homes or businesses. He or she may work in a variety of fields, and can be responsible for installing hardware, servicing a machine, or the maintenance and repair of already-installed products.

Expertise in the area of service, including a strong familiarity with the product, creativity, and problem-solving abilities are all good skills for a field engineer to develop. Since field engineers typically work directly with clients, it can be beneficial to have strong communication skills as well. Good fine motor skills and dexterity are often required. Now what does that mean? It means this. The average copier technician can be considered as one having a practical knowledge of theoretical principles. This means that where as an average person can say there is a problem with the copier. A copier technician can define the problem. This also means that if an engineer can define the location of the problem then the copier technician can fix it.

What skills are required to be a copier technician?

If you are in high school and reading this then lets deal with the starting point of what will help you as a technician. Copier technicians are great puzzle solvers. This means any toys or games that involve solving puzzles is great help in developing the mental processes necessary to solve copier problems. Puzzles such as sudoku, jig saw puzzles, rubics puzzles and the like are good training for copier techs. Video games are also good training. If its an rts… this teaches you process… if it’s an srpg… this teaches management of resources. if its a sim… this teaches you relationships… Its also good to be mechanically inclined. that means you are the individual who would rather fix a computer problem than pay to have it done or cook a meal instead of buying it.

Now what kind of degree is required. To be honest none really but most companies are looking for an A+. An A+ means that you understand how computers work and you are familiar enough with them that you have taken an industry standard test that proves it. There is also the comptia pdi+ This is a straight out basic copier training that says you know the basics. Its also good if you have network background. A comptia n+ certification would also be something good to have. Concerning in service certifications and trainings from the manufacturer, these are generally provided by the dealer who employs you. If you get enough of these then you are generally very proficient at what you do and can really coast around from job to job but as with anything else your mileage will vary.

Learning basic copier theory.

If you have an old fax machine then you have enough to learn basic copier and printer theory and troubleshooting. Why? Well most fax comes with basic copying and printing capabilities and its a cheap way to learn.

  • 1st. lets deal with paper path.
  • Paper is fed from the trays or the input section
  • it then travels by the drum where it receives an image and then it goes to the fuser where that image is burned in. the paper then exits the copier and is picked up by the end user.
  • lets say there is a paper jam.
  • your fist step is to find out where the paper is stopping.
  • once you know that then you have to see if its being blocked by a paperclip… a lose part or poor roller contact or a a broken gear.
  • next lets deal with image problems
  • in general the fax takes a picture of the image and then turns that image into electronic signals and then shoots them over to the drum where it is changes from a set of electronic signals into a text and images on paper.

Lets start with lines on copies…

  • do an internal print like meter report or a status report. then do a copy job. if you see lines on the copies but not the prints then the part that takes the picture is bad or possibly dirty. if there are lines on the prints but not the copies then the issue is with the original or there is an internal memory problem. if there are lines on both then you might have a dirty camera or laser or fuser.
  • if the fax is making grinding noises there is a cracked or broken gear. if the fax is not turning on then check the switch the outlet it is plugged into… if fax still not turning on then test the power cable with a continuity test. if still not turning on then test the power supply… if still not turning on then go to the service manual
  • if service manual not useful then check the manufacturer service line
  • if manufacturer service line not helpful then check the tech forums
  • if tech forums not helpful then Google the problem.
  • if parts are broken check the parts manual and order.
  • if unable to find parts then Google the part and order.

We are now in a world where technology goes hand in hand in everything we do, we cannot deny the fact that we are in an evolving society where we are in a stage of exploration to make our world a better and easier place to live in. Technology basically gives us a lot of advantages to really connect on what we are up to and one of the most important and most commonly used to us is “Communication”, whereas we basically exchange information from one another sometimes by the way of Fixed Communication Systems I think more surprisingly is that the evolution of this systems that allows us to communicate even in the hardest possibilities. With the help of fixed systems, we are able to have better communication through any means of communications there is.

One of the most common means of technology in our world is the telephone, and with it it’s pretty much a basic point to have access on a telephone wherever you may be. In every phone server there is a fixed communications in which basically becomes the root in order for a simple communication by the use of telephone or hand held phones to another. The fact that fixed communication systems play an important role to make the “conversation” happen, gives you a basic insight into how they work.

Allow us to explain in the simplest way that we can. Well, first off fixed communication systems are connected to a remote station, which acts as a server to cater the call, it is also wired or connected to a terminal in which performs the communication itself, so when a certain number or address is dialed in, it goes and basically connects to the station and on to the terminal, to make it happen. It is a basic structure that simply initiates the conversation and from there information is transferred.

Fixed Systems are now so broad that there are different types and uses on which it operates from, simple hand held phones that connect to computers and satellites. That is a diverse thing to really ponder into. Right now, the thought of having everything wireless is a common thing to almost everyone. The cell phones, the internet and almost everything is in the wireless society. Therefore, getting a fixed system is a totally new level as well, with the wireless internet technology called Wi-Fi most communication fixtures goes with a wireless response. Because right now everything is detailed using signals that performs the initial communication to really make the connection possible.

It is very much important for us to understand the wonders of how the fixed communication systems work because without a simple understanding in it, we wouldn’t be informed on how the communication system really works. In certain aspects fixed systems really give us the idea of how we communicate using today’s technology. The fact of the matter is, we shouldn’t be less informed in simple things such as fixed communication systems because having the understanding to it can give us relative information that would really be a good help us in an informative manner.

Nowadays E-Commerce is the buzz word. Although it is omnipresent but we never realize its importance primarily because it is known by different names. People do site promotion, SEO, affiliate marketing, and many other things but the goal is same i.e. to get clients and sell the products or services of the company. ‘E’ is just a medium to transact online. I will be listing some peculiar features of e-commerce which makes it considerably appreciable.

Ubiquity – In traditional commerce, a marketplace is a physical place we visit in order to transact. For example, television and radio are typically directed to motivating the customer to go someplace to make a purchase. E-commerce is ubiquitous, meaning that it is available just about everywhere at all times. It liberates the market from being restricted to a physical space and makes it possible to shop from your desktop. The result is called a market space. From consumer point of view, ubiquity reduces transaction costs – the cost of participating in a market. To transact, it is no longer necessary that you spend time and money traveling to a market. At a broader level, the ubiquity of e-commerce lowers the cognitive energy required to complete a task.

Global Reach – E-commerce technology permits commercial transactions to cross cultural and national boundaries far more conveniently and effectively as compared to traditional commerce. As a result, the potential market size for e-commerce merchants is roughly equal to the size of world’s online population.

Universal Standards – One strikingly unusual feature of e-commerce technologies is that the technical standards of the Internet and therefore the technical standards for conducting e-commerce are universal standards i.e. they are shared by all the nations around the world.

Interactivity – Unlike any of the commercial technologies of the twentieth century, with the possible exception of the telephone, e-commerce technologies are interactive, meaning they allow for two-way communication between merchants and consumer.

Information Density and Richness – The Internet vastly increase information density. It is the total amount and quality of information available to all market participants, consumers and merchants. E-commerce technologies reduce information collection, storage, communication and processing costs. At the same time, these technologies increase greatly the accuracy and timeliness of information, making information more useful and important than ever. As a result, information becomes plentiful, cheaper and of higher quality. Information richness refers to the complexity and content of a message.

Personalization – E-commerce technologies permit personalization. Merchants can target their marketing messages to specific individuals by adjusting the message to a person’s name, interests and past purchases. The technology also permits customization. Merchants can change the product or service based on user’s preferences or prior behavior.

E-commerce technologies make it possible for merchants to know much more about consumers and use this information more effectively than ever before. Online merchants can use this information to develop new information asymmetries, enhance their ability to brand products, charge premium prices for high quality service and segment the market into an endless number of subgroups, each receiving a different price.

Church tech is not new. The idea that the use of technology in the church is somehow wrong, ineffective or unprecedented is a misconception. God’s people have always used technology to further the kingdom. Perhaps the confusion comes in the definition of technology.

Technology can be defined as the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes or applications.

What Is Church Tech?

Church tech then can be defined as the use of methods, processes or knowledge to further the goals and mission of the church. Three great examples of the use of technology are found in the Holy Bible:

Noah used technological processes, methods or knowledge to build the ark, for the purpose of preserving the human race.

David defeated Goliath with a slingshot, which in his day was a high-tech weapon.

Solomon used the best technology available to him, in the form of stonecutters, carpenters, silversmiths, and surveyors, to build the temple.

So right off the bat you can throw out the misconception that:

1.”The church does not use Technology.”

One of the greatest uses of technology was the application of the printing press to mass produce copies of the Holy Bible. Johannes Gutenberg, considered the inventor of the printing press. used technology to mass produce books and quickly spread knowledge in 15th century Europe. The Gutenburg Bible is an early use of church tech to spread the gospel.

2. “Older congregants will not embrace technology.”

This is a commonly held belief based largely on assumptions. Not only is this not true, but a study by Dunham and Company showed that online giving among those over 65 was equal to that of those younger. Senior Americans have traditionally been late adopters of technology. But according to the Pew Research Center. Seniors are embracing technology at a surprising rate. In 2013, 59% were internet users.

3. “Technology will be our problem”

Technology itself is not bad, but it also is not foolproof. It’s all in how it is applied. The problem comes when church tech becomes a substitute for human interaction. People and churches require physical connection and human interaction for survival. Church tech should encourage and enhance, but not replace, the human part of the church experience.

4. “All technologies are created equal” and 5. “It doesn’t cost anything.”

Because of open source technology, an increasing number of tools and apps are available free or at a very low cost.

This does not mean that there is not cost involved with the development and use of this technology. Generally we do not realize the time, labor, testing involved with development, not to mention support and updates.

Just because you pay for something doesn’t guarantee a robust technology or carry more inherent value or functionality. Price does not always indicate worth. Tight church budgets require a plan. That plan not only requires time and education, but often financial resources too.

Church Tech Should Mean Enhancement, Not Replacement

Church tech can enhance but should not replace good old-fashioned Christian fellowship. As with anything, you should proceed with a plan and good stewardship in mind.

Panasonic are one of the worlds leading manufacturers and distributors of microwave ovens and have come up with the latest in microwave oven technology by introducing a range of microwaves with inverter technology. The inverter circuit boards replace the old transformer and capacitor style microwaves, making the microwaves more efficient. The inverters improve the efficiency of the microwaves by making the reheating and cooking food much faster.

The greatest benefit with inverter microwaves over conventional microwaves is that when the power level is dropped the power, in an inverter microwave oven, remains constant. Conventional microwaves when not cooking on full power pulse, which means the power turns on and off, often leading to uneven cooking and cold spots.

Inverter microwave technology is designed to cook evenly, which will improve the texture and flavor of food and produce less shrinkage and no cold spots, even if reheating the food. Overall Panasonic have developed microwaves for the everybody in mind. Inverter microwaves have greater capacity and are lighter than there conventional microwave ovens, because they use circuit boards, instead of transformers and capacitors.. This means that you can get an environmentally friendly product, that is quick and easy to use.

These state of the art advancements mean that you can know have true double level cooking. The Panasonic stacker allows two dishes too be placed in the oven and both will cook evenly and quickly. Some inverter ovens have turbo defrost, which will cut the defrosting time of a product by nearly half. The sensors inside the microwave mean that the microwave selects the proper cooking time and power level by pressing one button one time. The keep warm facility means that a product you have cooked can be kept warm without further cooking.

Types and Characteristics of WANs

What is a WAN?

There are two prevailing definitions of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The book definition of a WAN is a network that spans large geographical locations, usually to interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). The practical definition of a WAN is a network that traverses a public network or commercial carrier, using one of several WAN technologies

What are its Main Components?

The main components for a WAN are routers, switches and modems. These components are described below in the hardware section.

CPE – Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).

The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office. This cabling is often called the local loop, or “last-mile”.

DTE/DCE – Devices that put data on the local loop are called data circuit-terminating equipment, or data communications equipment (DCE). The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE). The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.


In a WAN you will need various types of hardware components for it to function. The typical items of hardware that you will need in a WAN are:

Router – An electronic device that connects a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN) and handles the task of routing messages between the two networks. Operates at layer 3, and makes decisions using IP addresses.

Switch – A switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. Operates at layer 2, and uses MAC addresses to send data to correct destination.

Modem – Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem enables a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Operates at layer 1, where signals are converted from digital to analogue and vice versa for transmission and receiving.

Wan Standards

WANs operate within the OSI model using layer 1 and layer 2 levels. The data link layer and the physical layer. The physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical and functional connections to the services provided by the ISP. The data link layer defines how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites.


Encapsulation is the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. Remember that WANs operate at the physical layer and the data link layer of the osi model and that higher layer protocols such as IP are encapsulated when sent across the WAN link. Serial interfaces support a wide range of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. These types include SDLC, PPP, Frame delay etc. Regardless of WAN encapsulation used it must be identical on both sides of the point to point link.

Packet and Circuit Switching

Circuit switching and packet switching are both used in high-capacity networks.

The majority of switched networks today get data across the network

through packet switching.

Circuit-switching is more reliable than packet-switching. Circuit switching is old and expensive, packet switching is more modern.

General Routing Issues

What is a Routing Protocol?

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate and exchange information on a network. Each router has prior knowledge of its immediate neighbours and knows the structure of the network topology. The routers know this because the routing protocol shares this information.


RIP (Routing Information Protocol) was one of the most commonly uses protocols on internal networks. Routers use RIP to dynamically adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information about which networks routers can reach and the distance between them. RIP is sometimes said to stand for Rest in Pieces in reference to the reputation that RIP has for breaking unexpectedly and rendering a network unable to function.

Routing Algorithms

Distance Vector

This type of routing protocol requires that each router simply inform its neighbours of its routing table. The distance vector protocol is also known as the bellman-ford algorithm.

Link State

This type of routing protocol requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The link state algorithm is also know as Dijkstra’s algorithm.


IGRP is a type of distance vector routing protocol invented by cisco used to exchange routing data in a autonomous system. Distance vector protocols measure distances and compare routes. Routers that use distance vector must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing update message at regular intervals to each neighbour router.

Addressing and Routing

What does routing mean?

Routing is the process of deciding how to move packets from one network to another.

The directions also known as routes can be learned by a router using a routing protocol then the information is passed from router to router along the route of the destination.

IP Address’s

Every machine connected to the internet is assigned an IP address. An example of an IP address would be IP addresses are displayed in decimal format to make it easier for humans to understand but computers communicate in binary form. The four numbers that separate an IP address are called Octets. Each position consists of eight bits. When added to together you get 32 bit address. The purpose of each octet in an IP address is to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned within a network. There are three main classes that we deal with Class A, B and C. The octets of an IP address are split into two parts Network and Host. In a class A address the first octet is the network portion, this determines which network the computer belongs to, the last octets of the address are the hosts that belong to the network.

Sub netting

Sub netting allows you to create multiple networks within a class A, B or C address. The subnet address is the address used by your LAN. In a Class C network address you would have a subnet mask of A subnet mask identifies which portion is network and which is host. For example the first octet three octets are the Network address and the last octet being the host(Workstation). It is important to subnet a network because gateways need to forward packets to other LANS. By giving each NIC on the gateway an IP address and a Subnet mask it allows the gateways to route packets from LAN to LAN. Once the packet arrives at its destination, the gateway then uses the bits of the subnet portion of the IP address to decide which LAN to send the packets.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines

A circuit switched network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Here are some terminologies associated with a Circuit switched network.

Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission between local area networks (LANs)

Basic rate interference is a service used by small business for internet connectivity. An ISDN BRI provides two 64 Kbps digital channels to the user.

Primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying voice and data transmissions between two locations

All data and voice channels are ISDN and operate at 64kbit/s

Packet Switching – _Toc80455261

Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are broken up into small packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted over the Internet. At the destination the packets are reassembled into the original message. Packet switching main difference from Circuit Switching is that that the communication lines are not dedicated to passing messages from the source to the destination. In Packet Switching, different messages can use the same network resources within the same time period.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and protocolwhich encodes data into small fixed-sized cells.

ISDN is used to carry voice, data, video and images across a telephone network. ISDN stands for integrated services Digital Network. Isdn also provides users with a 128kbps bandwidth. This is done through frame relay. Frame relay complements and provides a service between ISDN, which offers bandwidth at 128 Kbps and Asynchronous Transfer Mode which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet switching technology and is used to transmit analogue signals such as telephone conversations.

PSDN stands for packet switched data network and is a data communication network. Packet switched networks do not establish a physical communication signal like the public telephone does (circuit switched network) Packets are sent on a fixed length basis and assigned with a source and a destination address. The packets then rely on the routers to read the address and route the packets through the network.

Mobile and Broadband Services

Digital Subscriber line(DSL) is mainly used to bring high bandwidth connections to homes and small business’s over a copper wire telephone line. This is can only be achieved if you stay within the range of the telephone exchange. DSL offers download rates of up to 6mbps allowing continuous transmission of video, audio and 3D effects. DSL is set to replace ISDN and compete with the cable modem in providing multimedia to homes. DSL works by connecting your telephone line to the telephone office over copper wires that are twisted together.

Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line is most commonly used for home users. It provides a high download speed but a lower upload speed. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 megabits per second of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream.

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a digital subcriber line which runs over one pair of copper wires. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is the difference in upload and download speeds. SDSL allows the same upstream data rate and downstream data rate as ADSL upstream can be very slow.


HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of HDSL is that provides equal bandwidth in both directions.

IDSL is a system in which data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line from a user to a destination using digital transmission.

The Local Loop enables operators to connect directly to the consumer via copper local loops and then add their own equipment to offer broadband and other services. This process involves operators accessing local exchange buildings to connect to a network of copper lines which connect them to homes and businesses. BT is an Example of a Local Exchange. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit.

Benefits of using DSL

DSL can provide virtually instantaneous transmission of voice, data and video over ordinary copper phone lines. A DSL connection can eliminate delays when waiting to download information and graphics from the Internet. It provides users with a cost effective high speed Internet connection. Another benefit is that a DSL connection is always on-line (like a LAN connection) with no waiting time for dialling or connecting.

There are now more than 10 million broadband connections in the UK. By December 2005 there were 9.792 million broadband connections in the UK and the average broadband take up rate during the three months to December was more than 70,000 per week.

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